There are 131023 water bodies in the territory, including:
- 18100 rivers of total length of 95 thousand km;
- 12900 lakes of total area of 4451 sq. km;
- 6 water reservoirs of total volume of 21,198 million cub. m;
- 23 water reservoirs and basins regulated by the Head Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia in Tomsk Region, with the total volume of 7.6 million cub. m;
- -wetlands of total area of over 80 thousand sq. km.
Underground waters are used for supplying the population of Tomsk Region with drinking water. The total volume of expected operating resources of underground waters in Tomsk Region is 38.7 million cub. m/day, 31.6 million cub. m/day of which are secure, with the total need of the population in drinking water of 0.33 million cub. m/day. The exploration extent of underground waters is not high. As of 01.01.2002 29 deposits of fresh underground waters and 3 deposits of mineral waters have been explored in Tomsk Region.
The total sum of estimated operation reserves of underground waters by categories А+В+С 1 is 1028.59 thousand cub. m/day, 965.47 thousand cub. m/day of which have been approved by the State Reserves Committee or Territorial Reserves Committee, while 62.92 thousand cub. m/day have been taken note of by the Council for Science and Engineering.
Only 15 of 29 explored deposits of fresh underground waters are used now. The highest number of explored deposits (19) account for the paleogenic aquifer system widely used for water supply in Tomsk Region. The main source of water supply in the south of the region is fracture zones of Paleozoic formations. Waters of neogene-quaternary deposits are used rarely, primarily for water supply in the countryside.
Despite the fact that the need in drinking water of almost all regional centres of the Region is provided by operation reserves, they are not explored in 9 of 16 regions and water supply of the population is carried out from single water wells using non-approved reserves.
Underground water intake as of 01.01.2002 made up 397.81 thousand cub. m/day (0.99 % of the estimated expected resources). The most part of produced underground water, 57 %, is directed at meeting household and drinking needs of the population, 18 % - on the production and technical needs, mainly for maintaining formation pressure during oil extraction (Lower Cretaceous deposits of Pokurskaya suite are used for this purpose), 25 % are the losses.
The share of underground water in the balance of household and drinking water supply of administrative districts is 90-92%, and the surface waters are used only in Tomsk and Asinovsky districts, mainly for hot water supply and technical purposes.
Annually, 3-3.5 cub. m of water are used in the region’s economy, 0.6-0.7 cub m which are taken from natural sources, while the rest volume – from the reuse recirculation systems. Fresh water is used for production needs (84%), household and drinking needs (13%), agricultural water supply, including irrigation (1%).
The main part of the total water consumption is provided from surface sources for industry needs, especially of enterprises of chemical and petrochemical industries, and the maximum load rests upon the Tom River and is connected with technical water supply of FSUE “Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises” (SGCE).
The main problems of the condition of water bodies in Tomsk Region are:
The quality of drinking water and pollution of sources of drinking water supply.
The surface waters in Tomsk Region cannot be used for organization of centralized water supply owing to their vulnerability because of anthropogenic pollution. The rivers, at banks of which the largest residential areas are situated, are highly polluted as a result of repeated disposals of untreated sewage of industry, agricultural production, lumbering operation, oil and gas extraction industries.
The only reliable source of high-quality household and drinking water supply of the population of the region is underground waters. Underground water reserves are capable of meeting Tomsk Region citizens’ needs not only at present, but in long term as well. At the same time, the quality of underground water in natural conditions by a number of such indices as contents of iron, manganese, in separate cases – of phenols, nitrogen-containing substances, oil products, and in some northern districts – water dissolved gases (hydrogen sulphide, methane), does not meet requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Standards 184.108.40.2069-96. In bacteriological terms, the waters, as a rule, meet the existing requirements.
On condition of respective water treatment, unconditional waters can meet the GOST regulations, however special water treatment before drinking water supply is carried out only at large intake facilities. The water, as a rule, is primitive at smaller and most decentralized intake facilities, while there is no treatment at single development wells. In these cases the population uses untreated water for meeting their needs. At many operating water intake facilities the zones of sanitary protection are not established or not maintained. Out of 830 water use facilities only 378 (about 46 %) of them have licenses for underground water production, at other facilities the production is unlicensed, and consequently there is uncontrolled use of underground water resources there. An important problem is presence of a big number of self-pumping and abandoned wells, which are almost never eliminated.
Pollution of surface water bodies.
The quality of surface waters in most cases does not meet regulations by content of oil products, phenols, iron, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen, organic substances by COD value, content of microflora and a number of other indices, while the waters themselves are estimated as “moderately polluted”, “polluted”, and waters of small rivers in the basin of the Tom River, which are affected by the anthropogenic factor to the greatest degree, are “very dirty”. Owing to low quality caused by intake of sewage waters from controlled and especially from uncontrolled sewage disposal places, as well as swamp waters with high content of iron, manganese, ammonium nitrogen and organic substances, water of rivers and lakes in Tomsk Region can be a cause of pollution of underground drinking waters (if there is hydraulic connection) and a cause of some diseases related to household use of water courses and water bodies. The problem of pollution of surface waters is especially acute in Tomsk agro-industrial agglomeration and in districts of oil and gas extraction. Solving it requires, first of all, exposing and, if possible, eliminating dumping areas, untreated sewage and storm waters within existing and potential water protection areas.
The condition of courses and banks of water bodies.
River courses are formed of relatively easily erodible sand, sand-and-shingle and sand-and-mud deposits, therefore at many parts of the Ob River and its affluents one can observe major horizontal deformation of the course (up to 15-20 m/year at the Ob and Chulym, up to 1.5-2 m/year at the Tom). In particular, intensive erosion processes can be observed at the Ob River, close to the villages of Nazino, Aleksandrovskoye, Vertikos, Kargasok, Tymsk, Kolpashevo, at the rivers of Chulym, Chay and its affluents. A rather high activity of erosion processes can be observed at the Tom River in Tomsk Region and directly near Tomsk. The danger of river bed evolution in Tomsk Region is connected with not only wash-out of banks and destruction of commercial facilities, but also with changes of the river bed levels, and consequently with changes of water levels and inundation degree of flood lands in spring period. In connection with this circumstance it is necessary to conduct constant monitoring and, if required, deepening and straightening of river courses. The need in such works is especially acute in case of the Tom River neat Tomsk, where following the cessation of course extraction of sand-and-shingle mix one can recently observe some increase of maximum water levels.
The swampiness of the territory of Tomsk Region.
Wide spreading of swamps and wetlands significantly limits commercial activities, worsens the life conditions of the population, and, in particular, causes low quality of surface and underground waters as a result of high contents of iron and organic substances in swamp waters, feeding rivers and flowing in underground water levels. One should note that presence of vast wetlands causes a whole number of ecological and water-related problems, irrespective of the fact whether swamp formation will continue or, on the opposite, swamp systems will be destroyed. These problems are mainly caused by a high content of pollutants in swamp waters and imperfection of the regional regulatory basis, which does not consider high degree of swampiness while determining borderlines of water-protection areas and calculation of maximum allowable discharges.
There is a need in urgent measures directed at stabilization and strengthening of water utilization system of the Region, as well as at prevention and elimination of harmful impact of waters.