According to the Land Code of the Russian Federation (N 136-ФЗ of 25.10.2001), the relationships in the field of use and protection of land are regulated based on ideas about land as a natural object protected as an important constituent of the nature, used as a means of production in agriculture and forestry, and basics of commercial and other activities in the territory of the Russian Federation, and simultaneously as real estate, an object of property right and other right to land.
One of the principles the Land Code is based on is the principle of division of state property into property of the Russian Federation, property of subjects of the Russian Federation and property of municipal formations.
In accordance with the Law of Tomsk Region (N 29-Оз of 16.11.98), in order to implement functions and powers which relate, according to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, other laws and regulations, to administration of state authorities of Tomsk Region, all lands within Tomsk Region are property of Tomsk Region, excluding:
- lands provided for meeting needs of defense and security of the country, defense industry, production of poisonous and narcotic substances;
- lands occupied with federal energy, transport and space systems, facilities of nuclear power generation, federal systems of communications and information, meteorological service, objects of historic and cultural heritage of federal (all-Russian) importance;
- lands of specially protected natural territories of federal importance;
- lands of the forest fund;
- lands occupied with water bodies belonging, under the right of ownership, to RF;
- lands occupied with enterprises and (or) facilities according to kinds of activities of which administrative and territorial formations were created;
- lands being property of citizens and legal entities, municipal formations;
- other lands referred to by laws of RF as federal property.
Tomsk Region includes 20 municipal formations, including Closed Administrative-Territorial Unit Seversk, 6 towns and 2 urban-type settlements. There are 320 thousand property owners, owners and users of land in the region, including over 50 thousand of owners of land shares.
Tomsk Region, which is situated in south-eastern part of the Western Siberian Lowland, has flat-plain landscape with inclination to north-west, with rather low altitude above sea level (120-130 m).
The soil cover in the Region is formed with presence of specific features which determine its individual qualities, in particular, increased hydromorphism, explained by swampiness of the territory, and in southern regions by intensive freezing and slow melting of soils. The geographic position, extreme continental climate, special soil formation conditions determine main natural processes characteristic for the land fund of Tomsk Region: overmoisturizing, swampiness, water erosion. The anthropogenic impact on the nature leads to reconstruction of the biogeochemical structure of the landscapes. The negative processes are especially evident in agricultural lands and lands of towns.
The agrochemical properties of main types of soils of the agricultural zone are, on the whole, well explored. However, there are no results of many-year observations of content of microelements in the soils. No regularities of the dynamics of microelements in soils are revealed, as well as impact on it of main factors determining income of microelements to soils and show cover.
The lands of towns, where concentrated, various and intensive commercial activities are developed, are subjected to deep changes of the geological environment, which express themselves in development of dangerous engineering and geological processes: landslide formation, gullying, underflood and inundation, swampiness, lateral erosion.
Correct estimation of the existing processes, determination of the extent of transformation of natural landscapes and development of ways of optimal management of them require development and introduction of a system for monitoring of the soil cover of high dynamism in space and time.
The committee for land resources and land management in Tomsk Region, with the support of regional Administration, conducts activities on land cadaster of Tomsk Region. In residential areas they have land inventory and have fulfilled works on topographic-geodesic, soil, geobotanical research and estimation of agricultural lands. There is planning and mapping material of scales 1:10000 and 1:25000 for the territory of agricultural activities, and for the rest part – of scale 1:100000 and less. One requires annual renewal of the material for 1-2 administrative districts. About 10% of the soil exploration material requires correcting. Geobotanical research has been conducted at 63% of the area of forage lands, 25% of which require correcting.
Measures implemented within the framework of the program “Development of the land reform in Tomsk Region for 2002” have not made it possible to fully complete the task of regulating land relationships in Tomsk Region. Works on dividing the state property into property of the Russian Federation, property of Tomsk Region and property of municipal formations have not been completed fully. Creation of information database for management of lands being state property has not been completed. An automated system of monitoring of land resources in the territory of Tomsk Region has not been created. The system of management of land resources in Tomsk Region is insufficiently connected with the system of management of other natural resources in organization terms, which in some cases can be a cause of irrational use of existing natural resources.