Fauna and fish resources
The fauna of Tomsk Region has 2 thousand species and groups. More than 1.5 thousand of them are various groups of invertebrates, 1 species is cyclostomes, 33 species are fish, 6 species are amphibians, 4 species are reptiles, 326 species are birds and 62 species are mammals.
The abundance in species variety is greatly explained by landscape and ecological type of the region. Of the total area of the region (31439.1 thousand ha) 20022.4 belong to forest areas, 1365.3 – to fields, 9146.6 thousand ha – to swamps; 294.4 thousand ha are other kinds of areas. In this connection more than half of all animals in fauna inhabit forests (or their secondary growth), about a third part of all species inhabit water areas and water-and-wetlands.
According to the nature of inhabiting the territory of the Region most species of amphibians, reptiles and mammals lead sedentary life or sedentary and roving life; only a part of all chiropterous animals do regular migration.
Among the birds, the majority is migrant species - 147, non-migratory and nomadic species - 48, transient species (crossing the territory of the region, but not reproducing in its borders) - 39 and wintering species (present in the territory only in winter period) - 4. Vagrant species are represented by a rather high number (62 species), whose presence in the territory of Tomsk Region is not regular. The basis of the birds’ population is 225 nesting species. In winter the population of birds is various: in different years there were from 30 to 60 species in the territory, which depends on the presence of food (berries and seed plants) and weather conditions. The ornithological fauna of Tomsk Region by its historical origins has the Siberian and European nature, with a significant share of transpalaearctic species.
Reserves. In recent years natural conditions in water bodies of Tomsk Region have been very favourable for formation of reserves of lake and river fish, which make up the basis of fishery. The total commercial stock of these fish (pike, orfe, bream, roach and others) since 1999 by 2005 has increased approximately by 50 %. The total permissible fish capture in these years has increased up to 3.5 thousand tons. However, there are significant differences in the state of reserves of certain fish species, as they greatly fluctuate in connection with introduction into fishery of generations of fish of various “productivity”, and the number of each generation depends mainly on hydrological and temperature regime in the period of spawning, development of spawn and larva. Reserves of especially valuable fish species are greatly “controlled” also by intensity of their fishing, including illegal one. According to data of ZapSibNIIVBAK, charged by the Russian Committee of Fishery to estimate the state of fish reserves, the total permissible level of fishing in water bodies of Tomsk Region in 2005 was 3 thousand tons. It is 1.5 times more than in 2001. In main fishery districts – the northern ones – the basis of fish reserves is pike, orfe and roach. Crucian and burbot also are very important in fishery. In Aleksandrovsky district dace also belongs to main commercial fish species. In southern districts acclimatized bream still dominates. Its number here is excessively high, and the areal gradually spreads downstream the Ob. Several years ago it became a common species for Karkasoksky part of the Ob, and in 2005 one observed an increase in its number in Aleksandrovsky district.
Reserves of semidiadromous fish (nelma, muksun and peled) actively get accustomed in Tyumen Region and its national districts. The share of Tomsk Region accounts for only 4 - 6 % of the total amount of commercial fishery of these fish species. Out of local fish species starlet is especially valuable, but its share in total commercial capture is extremely low (about 0.3 %).